Posted by Abdul Alim
Prof Jerome Gauntlett, head of theoretical physics at Imperial College London, said: “The discovery of the Higgs boson is a truly great moment for science.
“Its origins go back to the 1960s with enormous contributions made by Peter Higgs in Edinburgh and by Tom Kibble and Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam at Imperial.
“It is fantastic moment for British science that 50 years later on we have received such dramatic confirmation of their profound ideas.
Salam’s work was concerned with the theories describing the behavior and properties of elementary particles; for this he received the 1979 Nobel Prize for physics, shared with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg. Although the three men did most of their work independently, they each contributed to the development of a theory that could take account of the ‘weak’ and ‘electromagnetic’ interactions. One of their predictions was the phenomenon of neutral currents and their strengths, which was first confirmed in 1973 at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and later by other groups. A further prediction of the theory is that of the existence of ‘intermediate vector bosons’ with high masses. The discovery of a vector boson was reported in 1983 by two teams (comprising 180 scientists) working at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva.
Blog- Iampleasant.com: …………It was discovered that when a gauge theory combines with an additional field breaking the symmetry group spontaneously, gauge bosons acquired finite mass consistently. Despite the large values involved, it allowed a gauge theory description of the weak force, developed independently in 1967 by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam. Though originally rejected, Higgs’s paper was resubmitted to Physical Review Letters, with an additional sentence on the existence of massive scalar bosons which eventually came to be known as Higgs bosons.
Let me first make sense of all these jargons. Particles roughly fall under two categories viz. fermions and bosonsdepending on whether they form matter or carry force. The fermions are themselves divided into hadrons andleptons based on whether they interact using the strong or weak force. Further, the hadrons are divided intobaryons and mesons according to their quark structure. A gauge is a special coordinate system that varies based on a particle’s location with respect to a base space or a parameter space and a change of coordinates applied to every such location in that system is called a gauge transform. A gauge theory is a mathematical model of a system to which gauge transforms are applied.